Lithology (from Greek lithos – stone and logos – word, description, studies) – studies about modern sedimentary rocks, their composition, structure, origin and positional location patterns.

The main objectives of the lithology is to identify regularities in distribution of various types of sedimentary rock and mineral resources in the overall rock forming process across the entire geological history of Earth, in stratification and correlation of sections (sequences). The key method to achieve these objectives is genetic analysis of sedimentary rocks, their natural paragenetic combinations – sedimentary associations and paleogeographic conditions of their accumulation.